The rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Sanskrit College, Ayurveda College, Law College and a second-grade college for women were started by Moolam Thirunal (1885–1924).. There were harbours of Naura near Kannur, Tyndis near Koyilandy, and Bacare near Alappuzha which were also trading with Rome and Palakkad pass (churam) facilitated migration and trade. , The political alliance have strongly stabilised in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the alliance. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular.. According to him, Muziris could be reached in 40 days from the Red Sea ports of Egypt purely depending on the South west monsoon winds. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Laterisation is a result of the heavy rainfall and humid conditions. The Cheras regained control over Kerala in the 9th century until the kingdom was dissolved in the 12th century, after which small autonomous chiefdoms, most notably Venadu, arose.  Following India's independence in 1947, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin state and remained so till the new Indian state of Kerala was formed in 1956. Kerala Floods 2018: Here are some facts, details, information and precautions to know while using a car amidst the floods in Kerala. It is the tippler country that … , Thiruvananthapuram is served by the Thiruvananthapuram International Airport, located at Chakai, only 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) from the city centre. Muziris, Berkarai, and Nelcynda were among the principal trading port centres of the Chera kingdom.  The city also hosted the first Twenty20 International cricket match in Kerala. Vellayani, Thiruvallam and Aakulam backwaters lie in the city. In 1779, the Anglo-French war broke out, resulting in the French loss of Mahé, India. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. In 1729, Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district. Encyclopædia Britannica. He is reputed to have founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta.  State- and central-government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. The early Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighboring Cholas and Rashtrakutas. As per the 2001 census, the population below the poverty line in the city was 11,667. The functions of the Municipal Corporation are managed by seven departments—engineering, health, general administration, council, accounts and revenue. However, its generally agreed that the Samoothiri were originally the Nair chieftains of Eralnadu region of the Later Chera Kingdom and were known as the Eradis. Kowdiar road; also known as the royal road or "Raja Veedhi", as it leads to the Kowdiar Palace, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, Richard Temple-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library, Thiruvananthapuram - Silchar Superfast Express, The State Council of Educational Research and Training, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, International General Certificate of Secondary Education, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Government Model Boys Higher Secondary School, Government Higher Secondary School for Girls, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Government Engineering College BartonHill, Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering, Mohandas college of Engineering and Technology, Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, Lakshmibai National College of Physical Education, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Kerala, Centre for Development of Imaging Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library, largest cricket and football stadiums in India, Greenfield International Stadium(The Sports Hub), "History – Official Website of District Court of India", "Thiruvananthapuram Corporation General Information", "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above", "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 million and above", "Ramzan turns Kerala into a foodies' paradise", "The Kerala Official Language (Legislation) Act, 1969", "Kunhalikutty to lay foundation stone for Technopark tomorrow", "Thiruvananthapuram: One of the South's Hottest IT Hubs-DQWeek", "With centres nod, foundation stone laid for KINFRA's second phase IT/ ITES Park in Thiruvananthapuram", "Thiruvananthapuram best Kerala city to live in: Times survey", "India's Best Cities: Winners and Why they made it", "Thiruvananthapuram is the best city in India:Survey", "Delhi, Mumbai not the best in urban governance, Thiruvananthapuram first", "Shedding light on Vizhinjam's golden past", "Chronicles of Kanthalloor Sala which got lost in the mists of time", "History of legislative bodies in Kerala-- Sri Mulam Popular Assembly", "Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation", "The Movement for a United (Aikya) Kerala", "List of Urban Agglomerations of 2011 Census", "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)", "Station: Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) Climatological Table 1981–2010", "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India", "Normals Data: Thiruvananthapuram - India Latitude: 8.48°N Longitude: 76.95°E Height: 59 (m)", "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011", "Thiruvananthapuram City Census 2011 data", "Institutional Setup of Corporation of Thiruvananthapuram", "About Thiruvananthapuram Development Authority", "Governance of District Police, Thiruvananthapuram City", "UAE Consulate Thiruvananthapuram Kerala", "City needs special zone for diplomatic missions", "Wellington Water Works an example of far-sightedness", "Sludge disposal poses a hurdle at Muttathara sewage treatment plant", "Sewerage Scheme (Thiruvananthapuram) Phase – I", "Trivandrum to get modern fire fighting equipment for faster aid", "AlphaWise City Vibrancy Index: A Guide to India's Urbanization", "Central Industrial Security Force to take over BrahMos security", "Technopark becomes largest IT park in the country", "Boost for Life Sciences Park development", "Technopark: Riding smoothly into the future", "Vizhinjam International Transhipment Deepwater Multipurpose Seaport", "Vallarpadam Port loses out to Colombo on smaller draft, higher charges", "A Kerala Port with Adani. , Along with the major festivals of Onam, Vishu and Navarathri, Christian and Islamic festivals like Christmas, Eid ul-Fitr and Milad-e-sheriff, the diverse ethnic populace of the city celebrates several local festivals like Attukal Pongala, Beemapally Uroos, Vettukaad Church Festival, Padmanabhaswamy Temple Aaraattu and Lakshadeepam festival.  Germany's Goethe Zentrum, France's Alliance Française and Russia's Gorky Bhavan centres host a wide range of events and programmes throughout the year. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008, Page 285. Some groups choose to participate peacefully in electoralism, while some choose to aim for violent revolution.  It is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir (now Poovar) in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE.  J. C. Daniel is considered the father of Malayalam film industry. , The general cuisine of the people is Keralite cuisine, which is generally characterised by an abundance of coconut and spices. Please provide background or any detail on RSS attacks on Christians particularly in Chitoor, Kerala", https://doi.org/10.1080/14631369.2019.1601005, Kerala Modernity: Ideas, Spaces and Practices in Transition, Malabar on the Columbia University, New York website, About the Dutch colonial presence in Kerala, Nediyiruppu Swaroopam (Kingdom of Calicut), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Kerala&oldid=998617054, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abraham, Renu Elizabeth. Please provide some background on the Democratic Indira Congress and Mr. Karunakaran in Kerala. Tamilakam The state universities are the University of Kerala and APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University. "Jawaharlal Nehru and the smoking gun: Who pulled the trigger on Kerala's communist government in 1959?. It is …  Electricity is supplied by the Kerala State Electricity Board.   Athletic competitions are usually held at the University Stadium, Chandrasekharan Nair Stadium and Central Stadium. Comments 0. After the Dutch were defeated by Travancore king Marthanda Varma, the British crown gained control over Kerala by allying with the newly created princely state of Travancore until India was declared independent in 1947. However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram, fell in the subsequent attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam.  The city area is divided into seven blocks for the execution of the sewage system.  Long-distance trains originate from Thiruvananthapuram Central and Kochuveli railway terminal. It initiated pioneering land reforms, aiming to lowering of rural poverty in Kerala. Much more controversial was an effort to impose state control on private schools, such as those run by the Christians and the NSS, which enrolled 40% of the students.  The remainder of the community includes Jains, Jews, Sikhs, Buddhists and other religions which account for 0.06% of the population; 0.85% did not state a belief in the census.  TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television.  However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation.  Thiruvananthapuram is the first city along the path of the south-west monsoons and gets its first showers in early June. Most of the major political parties in Kerala, except for Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), belong to one or the other of these two alliances, often shifting allegiances a number of time.  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